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10 Day Jumping Jack Challenge

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Milo Close Up.mp4 2021

View this post on Instagram What better way than to celebrate Singapore's 54th birthday with our favourite malty flavoured cold goodie on a cone - MILO SOFT SERVE! And because two is always better than one, we're rolling out another one, with a beautiful twist (swipe left!) ? We're only having this for an exclusive period from 1 - 11 Aug. So hurry down to our store to get your hands on this refreshing chocolatey milo goodness!!!

Milo close up.mp4

Two major developmental pathways control DC: the stress response pathway JNK acts upstream and induces the bone morphogenetic protein homologue Decapentaplegic (DPP; Glise and Noselli, 1997; Hou et al., 1997; Kockel et al., 1997; Riesgo-Escovar and Hafen, 1997). These two signaling pathways are crucial for DC since embryos mutant for either JNK or DPP pathway components fail to close dorsally and exhibit a dorsal open phenotype (Affolter et al., 1994; Glise et al., 1995). However, how JNK and DPP contribute to DC and how the signals are integrated in a robust manner remain unclear (Riesgo-Escovar and Hafen, 1997; Martin and Parkhurst, 2004; Ríos-Barrera and Riesgo-Escovar, 2013).

miRNAs are major players in the canalization of cell decisions in the face of environmental challenges (Posadas and Carthew, 2014): mir-7 stabilizes gene expression and allows the correct determination of sensory organs in flies subjected to temperature fluctuations (Li et al., 2009). miRNAs are posttranscriptional regulators that produce moderate but rapid effects on gene expression. This rapid action appears to have favored their recruitment into network motifs dedicated to tune gene expression in a prompt manner: a transcription factor controls the miRNA and both together control a common target, forming an FFL. The major difference between miRNA and DPP-mediated FFL is the time scale: compared with the swift-acting miRNAs, DPP needs to be translated, secreted, reach a threshold to activate its pathway, to finally repress brk transcription. The prediction is that DPP-mediated FFL filters JNK inputs that are on a long time scale: DPP would not only filter out JNK noise but could also filter out authentic JNK signaling that is important for nonpatterning functions. JNK is the main messenger of stress, and mechanisms must exist to distinguish stress-related and development-related JNK inputs within a given cell. This would explain why brk mutants close normally in favorable conditions. Environmental perturbations such as temperature excess are bound to have pleiotropic effects on biological systems. The FFL appears as the generic remedy to enforce robustness at several levels. Factors acting at specific kinetics form the indirect branches of FFLs adapted to specific needs: miRNAs cancel noise, and DPP ensures the proper interpretation of JNK signaling.

All around us, plants, fungi, and bacteria are waging chemical warfare against one another to deter grazing, prevent against infection, or reduce the viability of competitor species. Us humans benefit from this. We use many of these compounds, called secondary metabolites, as antibiotics, medicines, painkillers, toxins, pigments, food additives, and more. We are nowhere close to finding all of these potentially useful compounds, particularly in marine environments where organisms can make very different types of chemicals. Could something as ordinary as a fungus from the sea provide us with the next big cancer breakthrough?

A former high school science teacher himself, Brian grew up in St. Louis and received his undergraduate degree in biology from Lewis and Clark College. As an undergraduate, he first became acquainted with environmental research as a field technician in St. Croix in the Caribbean. After participating in Teach For America in New York City, he took many environmental research and education jobs before deciding to return to the ocean to bridge his interests of outdoor education and social science. As his masters draws to a close, Brian will be staying at OSU to begin a PhD in Fisheries and Wildlife working to bring multiple perspectives to marine conservation efforts in East Africa. 041b061a72


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